Data sources used in

Hadcrut and HadSST

Berkley Earth

Satellite observations from RSS

Weather Balloons

Sea level gauges

Sea level satellite altimetry

BP Statistical review of world energy

The World Bank Development Indicators

Sea Ice

Ph and dissolved CO2 in the ocean surface water

Atmospheric CO2

Atmospheric CH4 (Methane)

City Pollution

Nasa Ceres

Hadcrut and HadSST

Torungen lighthouse and weather station Norway

HadCRUT is the dataset of monthly instrumental temperature records formed by combining the sea surface temperature records compiled by the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office and the land surface air temperature records compiled by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia.

The HadCRUT4 data are neither interpolated nor variance adjusted.


Hadley sea surface

The Met Office Hadley Centre's sea surface temperature data set, HadSST3 is a monthly global field of SST on a 5° latitude by 5° longitude grid from 1850 to date. The data have been adjusted to minimize the effects of changes in instrumentation throughout the record.

Berkley Earth

Berkeley Earth is a Berkeley, California based independent non-profit focused on land temperature data analysis for climate science.

Berkeley Earth was founded in early 2010 with the goal of addressing the major concerns from outside the scientific community regarding global warming and the instrumental temperature.

Berkeley Earth's primary product is an analysis of summary air temperatures over land.

Berkeley Earth combines our land data with a modified version of the HadSST ocean temperature data set. The result is a global average temperature data set.

Links to further info:
HADCRUT4 source data,
HADSST site,
HADSST3 source data,
Berkley Earth, Land only site,
Berkley Earth, Land only source data,
Berkley Earth Land + Ocean site,
Berkley Earth Land + Ocean source data

Satellite observations from RSS

RSS is a private research company which processes microwave data from a variety of NASA satellites.

The monthly data files are used as source for these time series.

Two datasets are provided here; Temperature Lower Troposphere (TLT), and Temperature Lower Stratosphere (TLS).

TLT measures the temperatures from the surface up to approximately 10 km, with most weight in approximately 2.5 kilometer height as shown on the left figure below. TLS measures the altitudes from 10 to 30 km as shown in the right figure below.
Lower Troposphere Lower Stratosphere

Links to further info:
RSS site for upper air temperatures,
Satellite description from Nasa
RSS require that users register their email at the RSS site before providing access to the RSS source data. The source files used here are:
RSS_Monthly_MSU_AMSU_Channel_TLT_Anomalies_Land_and_Ocean for the troposphere and
RSS_Monthly_MSU_AMSU_Channel_TLS_Anomalies_Land_and_Ocean for the stratosphere.

Weather Balloons

A radiosonde is a small expendable package of instruments which is carried aloft into the atmosphere below a hydrogen, or helium-filled, balloon. As the radiosonde ascends, measurements of temperature and relative humidity are made at 2 second intervals.

The balloon typically ascends at 5 m/s to reach a height of about 25 km. As pressure decreases with height, the balloon expands until it bursts at which point the instrument package returns to earth borne by a parachute. Radiosonde

Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC) are datasets created through a collaborative effort involving NOAA scientists from the Air Resources Laboratory, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, and NCEI. Observations in the dataset are collected by hydrogen-filled weather balloons that carry a radiosonde up in the air to measure variables including temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure.

The RATPAC stations are a subset of the greater Radiosonde Archive of over 1,500 globally distributed stations. RATPAC data come from 85 stations with near-global coverage. The aim of the RATPAC series is to create time series from radiosonde temperatures that are less influenced by historical changes in instruments and measurement practices. Where available, data begin in 1958 and extend through the present.

Weather balloon Global network of radiosonde stations

RATPAC station List
NAMECountryLatitudeLongitudeElevation in meters
JAN MAYENGreenland sea70.93-8.679
LAJES/SANTA RITAPortugal38.73-27.07112
OSTROV PREOBR.Russia74.67112.9360
OSTROV CHETYR.Russia70.63162.438
BET DAGANIsrael3234.8235
JEDDAH/ABDUL AZIZ AIRPORTSaudi Arabia21.739.1817
KING'S PARKChina22.32114.1766
MARCUS IS.Japan24.3153.979
SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFESpain28.45-16.2536
ASCENSION IS./WIDEAWAKESt. Helena-7.97-14.479
DIEGO GARCIABr. Indian Oc. Terr.-7.372.43
MARTIN DE VIVIESFrench S. Antarctic-37.877.5329
TRIPOLI AIRPORTLibya32.6713.1582
ABIDJANCote D'Ivoire5.25-3.938
DURBAN AIRPORTSouth Africa-29.9730.9514
CAPE TOWN AIRPORTSouth Africa-33.9718.642
GOUGH IS.South Africa-40.35-9.8854
MARION IS.South Africa-46.8837.8721
ST. PAUL ISLANDUSA57.15-170.2210
MOULD BAYCanada76.23-119.3258
ST. JOHNSCanada47.67-52.75140
BAKER LAKECanada64.3-9649
SAN DIEGOUSA32.85-117.12132
DODGE CITYUSA37.77-99.97791
GREAT FALLSUSA47.46-111.381130
BERMUDA NAS KINDLEYBermuda32.37-64.6840
SAN JUANPuerto Rico18.43-6619
BOGOTA/EL DORADOColumbia4.7-74.152546
ISLA DE PASCUAChile-27.13-109.4747
PUERTO MONTTChile-41.43-73.190
BUENOS AIRES/EZEIZA AEROArgentina-34.82-58.5320
MAWSON BASEAntarctica-67.662.8815
MAJURO ATOLLMarshall Islands7.08171.383
HONIARASolomon Islands-9.42160.0556
NADI AIRPORTFiji-17.75177.4525
TAHITI-FAAAFrench Polynesia-17.55-149.622
INVERCARGILLNew Zealand-46.42168.324
CHATHAM ISLANDNew Zealand-43.95-176.5749
PERTH AIRPORTAustralia-31.93115.9720
ADELAIDE AIRPORTAustralia-34.95138.534
NORFOLK ISLANDNorfolk Island-29.03167.93110
MACQUARIE ISLANDAustralia-54.5158.958

Links to further info:
NOAA Weather balloon,
Weather balloon description from the UK Met Office,
Temporal Homogenization of Monthly Radiosonde Temperature Data. Part I: Methodology,
RATPAC-A Raw data,
RATPAC-B Raw data

Sea level gauges

Traditionally, global sea level change has been estimated from tide gauge measurements collected over the last century. Tide gauges, usually placed on piers, measure the sea level relative to a nearby geodetic benchmark. The most commonly used tide gauge measurement system is a float operating in a stilling well. Surveys of the tide gauge site are performed regularly to account for any settling of the site.

Major conclusions from tide gauge data have been that global sea level has risen approximately 10-25 cm during the past century.

The first gauge series is based on a selection made by Church and White, referenced below.

Global Sea Level Observing System (Gloss) is a network of 290 globally distributed coastal tide gauge stations. The available selections for Gloss are:

Simple Global average
This is a simple average of all stations
Gridded Global average
The grid is 10-degree latitude x 10-degree longitude, i.e. an 18 times 36 grid over the globe. The stations are first averaged in each grid-cell, then the globe average is taken by averaging the grid-cells.
Long series
This is series at least 75 years long and continuing to at least two years before current.
Extra Long series
This is series at least 100 years long and continuing to at least two years before current.
60N to NP
60-degree North to North Pole. 60N is the latitude of Hudson Bay, Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki and the South of Alaska.
Equator to 60N
Most of the stations are located in this sector
Equator to 60S
Similar for Southern hemisphere.
60S to SP
60 degrees south to the South Pole. 60S is the latitude of the Northernmost tip of the Antarctic continent. All the globes inhabited continents and islands are located north of 60S.
The figure below show the positions of the stations,
Gauge stations

Links to further info about the data from sea level gauges:
CSIRO Austalia,
A list of the tide gauges used for constructing the time series(zipped),
Church, J.A., White, N.J., 2011. Sea-Level Rise from the Late 19th to the Early 21st Century. Surveys in Geophysics, Volume 32 ,
Gauges data file (zipped),
List of gauge stations with data.

Sea level satellite altimetry

Sea level by Satellite Altimetry

A series of satellite missions that started with TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) in 1992 and continued with Jason-1 (2001 - 2013) and Jason-2 (2008 - present) estimate global mean sea level every 10 days with an uncertainty of 3 - 4 mm.,

Links to further info about the data from sea level by satellite altimetry:
- NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry,
-Data download site,

The chosen dataset is 'Topex, Jason-1, Jason-2 seasonal signal retained':
Source datafile

BP Statistical review of world energy

Since 1951, BP has annually published its Statistical Review of World Energy, which is considered an energy industry benchmark.

The presented statistics contains total CO2 emissions, total energy consumption and energy consumption for each major energy source.

all energy units are converted to Million tons oil equivalents (Mtoe).

1 million tons oil equivalent converts to:
1.11 billion cubic meters Natural gas
0.82 million tons Liquid Natural gas
1.5 million tons of hard coal
3 million tons of lignite
4.4 Terawatt-hours electricity. (Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal power station. Thermal energy equivalence is 12 Terawatt-hours.)

World energy use

Links to further info:
BP Statistical Review of World Energy,
Full report 2018
Data source

The World Bank Development Indicators

The primary World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially-recognized international sources. It presents the most current and accurate global development data available, and includes national, regional and global estimates.

A few indicators which are relevant for energy production, climate gas emissions, and global air pollution, are presented here.

Global electricity availablility

Links to further info:
The World Bank Development Indicators
2017 publication in pdf
Data source (zipped)

Sea Ice

Both Arctic and Antarctic sea ice varies considerably during the annual cycle as shown below – Ole Humlum – Professor, University of Oslo Department of Geosciences – Click the pic to view at source

The trends over the last decades are that the arctic ice has been declining, and the Antarctic ice has a small increase. The overall trend is a declining ice coverage.

Links to further info:
Data download directory,
North final data
North last two years
South final data
South last two years

Ph and dissolved CO2 in the ocean surface water

The Ocean PH data and dissolved CO2 data series are from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series study. The Bermuda series goes back to 1983, and the HOT series start in 1988.

HOT bannerScientists working on the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program have been making repeated observations of the hydrography, chemistry and biology of the water column at a station north of Oahu, Hawaii since October 1988. The objective of this research is to provide a comprehensive description of the ocean at a site representative of the North Pacific subtropical gyre.

The potential for acquiring more diverse and detailed time-series data was a key motivator in allowing BIOS to establish the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study. The BATS team is involved in making monthly measurements of important hydrographic, biological and chemical parameters throughout the water column at sites within the Sargasso Sea

Links to further info:
Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study
Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT)
Bermuda source data
Hawaii source data

More about Ph

Ph is a measure of acidity and alkalinity in a solution. Pure water has a Ph of 7 and is defined as neutral. A Ph below 7 is considered 'acidic' and a Ph above 7 is considered 'alkaline' or 'basic'.

Strong acids have a low Ph value. Vinegar has a Ph of approximately 2.2, and sulfuric acid (battery acid) has a Ph of 1.0. Ammonia on the other hand has a Ph of 11.0 and is therefore an example of a strong alkaline solution.

The mean pH of ocean waters ranges between 7.5 and 8.4 in the open ocean, which means that the ocean is a mildly alkaline solution.

Ph scale
CO2 dissolves in water and the dissolved CO2 forms a weak acid (H2CO) which contribute to lowering the ocean Ph. This process is called 'ocean acidification' although the ocean water is far from being pushed over from alkalinity to acidity, but it moves in the direction of acidity.

Ocean acidification can also be caused by other chemical additions or subtractions from the oceans that are natural (e.g., increased volcanic activity, methane hydrate releases, long-term changes in net respiration) or human-induced (e.g., release of nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere). Anthropogenic ocean acidification refers to the component of pH reduction that is caused by human activity.
According to IPCC (referenced below) the average pH of ocean surface waters has already fallen by about 0.1 units, from about 8.2 to 8.1 (total scale), since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The figure to the right show the connection between increased CO2 level and lowered Ph measured in the ocean surface water. Click for larger image. ph-ch2-timeseries
Link to further info:
IPCC AR 5 Chapter 3

More about the the oceans role in the carbon cycle

Since the beginning of the industrial era, the release of CO2 from industrial and agricultural activities has resulted in atmospheric CO2 concentrations that have increased from approximately 280 ppm to about 400 ppm in 2016. The oceans have absorbed approximately 165 PgC from the atmosphere over the last two and a half centuries. This means that about 40% of the man made CO2 emission has been absorbed by the oceans.
The oceans contain approximately 50 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, see figure above.

The rate of carbon uptake depends on the atmospheric CO2 level, the surface waters CO2 level, and the surface water temperature.

Cold water absorbs more CO2 than warm water. The relation between temperature and CO2 solubility in water is called Henry's Law. This relation has led to the question of whether the increased atmospheric CO2 level could have been caused by increased ocean temperature, and not the other way around.

However, Henry's law states that the atmospheric CO2 content should only raise by 12 ppm for each 1 Celsius increase in ocean temperature. Since the atmospheric CO2 increase is ten times bigger than the relation described by Henry's law, the increase cannot have been caused by that alone. Link to further info:
IPCC AR5 Chapter 6

Description of correlation between atmospheric CO2 content and temperature from the Vostoc ice cores:


Atmospheric CO2

The atmospheric CO2 series presented are Global marine surface, the Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii, and the South Pole observatory. The Mauna Loa has recordings since 1958 and the South Pole data are from 1975.

The data are provided by The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The Mauna loa primary observing site is located at the 3397 m (11,141 ft) level on Mauna Loa's north slopes. The South Pole observatory is located at the geographical South Pole, 2837 m above sea level.

Amundsen-Scott base

The Amundsen - Scott base, South Pole

Links to further info:
Mauna loa observatory
South Pole observatory
Global source data
Mauna Loa source data
South Pole source data

More about the carbon cycle

Carbon dioxide is an integral part of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the Earth's oceans, soil, rocks and biosphere.
A simplified schematic of the global carbon cycle is shown below. The figure is from IPCC AR5",
carbon cycle
Numbers represent reservoir mass, also called 'carbon stocks' in PgC (1 PgC = 1 billion tons C) and annual carbon exchange fluxes (in PgC per year). Black numbers and arrows indicate reservoir mass and exchange fluxes estimated for the time prior to the Industrial Era, about 1750.

The sediment storage is a sum of 150 PgC of the organic carbon in the mixed layer and 1600 PgC of the deep-sea CaCO3 sediments available to neutralize fossil fuel CO2.

Red arrows and numbers indicate annual 'anthropogenic' fluxes averaged over the 2000-2009 time period. These fluxes are a perturbation of the carbon cycle during industrial era post 1750. These fluxes (red arrows) are: Fossil fuel and cement emissions of CO2,
Net land use change, and
the Average atmospheric increase of CO2 in the atmosphere, also called 'CO2 growth rate'. The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean and by terrestrial ecosystems, often called 'carbon sinks' are the red arrows part of Net land flux and Net ocean flux.

Red numbers in the reservoirs denote cumulative changes of anthropogenic carbon over the Industrial Period 1750-2011. By convention, a positive cumulative change means that a reservoir has gained carbon since 1750

Atmospheric CH4 (Methane)

The atmospheric CH4 series presented are Global marine surface, the Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii, and the South Pole observatory. The methane goes back to 1983.

The data are provided by The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The Methane data comes from the same stations in Mauna Loa, Hawaii and South Pole base as the atmospheric CO2 data.
Amundsen-Scott base

The Amundsen - Scott base front

Links to further info:
Mauna loa observatory,
South Pole observatory,
Global source data,
Mauna Loa source data,
South Pole source data

More about Methane

Methane (CH4) absorbs infrared radiation relatively stronger per molecule compared to CO2. On the other hand, the methane lifetime is less than 10 years in the troposphere as opposed to the very long lifetime of CO2.

City Pollution

Data sources for city pollution are the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and Kings College UK.

The time series for city pollution are single measurement stations. For cities with several measurements stations the station with the most complete recording has been chosen.

The measurements are not suitable for comparisons of the pollution level between different cities, since some measurement stations are located in city centers, and others in the city's surroundings. However, the measurements are well suitable for seeing the development over time.

Stations used for Nitrogen Dioxide, PM10 and SO2:
ChicagoNaperville-Joliet Site 170314002;1
DallasForth Worth Arlington TX, Site 484391002;1
Los AngelesLong Beach-Santa Ana CA Site 60591003;1
MiamiFort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL Site 120864002;2
New YorkNorthern New Jersey-long island Site 340131003;1
PhiladelphiaCamden-Wilmington Site 421010047;1
WashingtonArlington-Alexandria Site 510130020;1

Stations used for PM2.5:
ChicagoNaperville-Joliet Site 180892010;2
DallasForth Worth-Arlington TX Site 481130050;1
Los AngelesLong Beach Santa Ana CA Site 060371103;2
MiamiFort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach FL Site 120861016;1
New YorkNorthern New Jersey-Long Island Site 340171003;2
PhiladelphiaCamden Wilmington Site 421010004;1
WashingtonArlington-Alexandria Site 516300004;1
Beijing. 55 An Jia Lou Rd., Chaoyang Distric, Beijing. (Since 2009, the station was relocated in february 2009)
ShanghaiLatitude: 31.21, Longditude: 121.44
Guangzhou43 Huajiu Rd., Zhujiang New Town, Guangzhou, Guangdong

The overall trends for PM and NO2 are shown below
US monitoring stations US monitoring stations

Links to further info:

United States Environmental Protection Agency,
Trends and link to raw data,
PM datafile Example from Los Angeles,
NO2 datafile example from Los Angeles,
Historical PM25 for Chinese cities

More about NO2

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), is not to be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O). Nitrogen dioxide is a major local pollutant, but has a short lifetime of approximately 1 day in the atmosphere, depending on temperature and sunlight. Nitrous oxide, on the other hand, has a lifetime in the atmosphere of 114 years and is a greenhouse gas.

Using a nationwide network of monitoring sites, EPA has developed ambient air quality trends for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particle pollution, also called Particulate Matter (PM). Under the Clean Air Act, EPA sets and reviews national air quality standards. Air quality monitors measure concentrations of NO2 and PM throughout the country.

Nasa Ceres

CERES is an acronym for Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy Systems CERES products include both solar-reflected and Earth-emitted radiation from the top of the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The CERES products used in are:
  1. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Shortwave Flux, All-sky conditions. This is outgoing shortwave flux.
  2. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Shortwave Flux, Clear-sky conditions This is outgoing shortwave flux assuming clear sky.
  3. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Longwave Flux, All-sky conditions This is outgoing longwave flux
  4. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Longwave Flux, Clear-sky conditions. This is outgoing longwave flux assuming clear sky.
  5. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Net Flux, All-sky conditions This is the net planetary flux. Positve values means net incoming flux, negative values means net outgoing flux.
  6. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Net Flux, Clear-sky conditions
  7. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Albedo, All-sky conditions This is also called the "Planetary_albedo"
  8. Observed Top of the Atmosphere albedo, Clear-sky conditions This is also called "Surface albedo"
  9. Observed Top of the Atmosphere Solar Insolation Flux, All-sky conditions This is the incoming shortwave flux from solar radiation.
  10. MODIS derived Aerosol Optical Depths: Aerosol Visible Optical Depth @ 0.55 micron over Land This is the atmosphere optical thickness due to ambient aerosol over land.
  11. MODIS derived Aerosol Optical Depths: Aerosol Visible Optical Depth @ 0.55 micron over Ocean This is the atmosphere optical thickness due to ambient aerosol over oceans.
  12. EBAF Top of The Atmosphere Net Flux, Monthly Means, All-Sky conditions CERES product TOA fluxes have a positive net imbalance, due mainly to the CERES instrument absolute calibration. The CERES EBAF-TOA product was designed for climate modelers that need a net imbalance constrained to the ocean heat storage term.
Furter info:
NASA CERES homepage
CERES Data download

Other resources that I appreciate

Climate science
AR5, IPCC's fifth Report Last report by the climate panel. Climate science presented by the scientists.
Climate.etc Judith Curry is a woman who has her own opinion.
WattsUpWithThat This is a site for climate skepticism. I do not agree with them, but sometimes they come up with some interesting perspectives
Tamino's Open mind Well written climate blog
Sealevel info This site contains lots of data concerning sealevel.

Other stuff: Real time air pollution around the globe